Blog posts

Cashflower cheat sheet

Simplicity and efficiency are essential in actuarial cash flow modelling. That's why we're excited to introduce the cashflower cheat sheet — a one-page reference guide to all the crucial components.

You can download the cheat sheet (PDF) and keep it at your fingertips while using Cashflower.

If you have any questions or need assistance, please don't hesitate to reach out. Happy modelling!

Insurance with riders

In this post, we will build a model for an insurance product with riders. The model will be built in Python using the cashflower package. An interesting part of this project will be that we will use two model point sets.

List of content:

  1. Data format
  2. Preparation
  3. Model
  4. Results

Data format

In this post, we will model an insurance product where a policyholder can have multiple coverages. For example, the policyholder can be insured against death and illness within the same policy.

In terms of model point data, the easiest approach would be to have additional columns in the …

Real estate mortgage

Everyone - not only actuaries - becomes very interested in the mechanics of a real estate mortgage once they buy their first home.

In this post, we will discuss how to model a real estate mortgage. We will use Python and the cashflower package.

List of content:

  1. Theory
  2. Modelling


A real estate mortgage is a loan from the bank to the customer that must be used to purchase real estate. The amount borrowed is typically quite large and the term is quite long (usually between 15 and 30 years). The payment frequency of real estate …

Cash flow model output

In this post, we will discuss the output of a cash flow model using the cashflower package in Python. In particular, we will check how to create individual and aggregated output, create an output only with a subset of columns and save a custom output.

List of content:

  1. Structure
  2. User-defined output


The output of a cash flow model is a table where rows represent periods and columns represent variables. Data are the values of the variables for the given period.

The structure of the output depends on two …


A bond is a type of financial asset that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower, typically a company or a government. When an investor buys a bond, they are essentially lending money to the borrower in exchange for regular coupon payments and a promise to repay the initial amount (nominal) at a future date, known as the bond's maturity date.

Bonds come in different types and are typically issued with a fixed coupon rate, which is determined at the time of issuance. The coupon payments are usually made periodically, such as monthly or annually, and the …